IAHR, founded in 1935, is a worldwide independent memberbased organisation of engineers and water specialists working in fields related to the hydroenvironmental sciences and their practical application. Activities range from river and maritime hydraulics to water resources development and ecohydraulics, through to ice engineering, hydroinformatics, and hydraulic machinery.





The logarithmic law for flows over large relative roughness 
Author : 
Wlodzimierz Czernuszenko 
The mean velocity distribution in an open channel flow over large relative roughness like gravel or pebblebed is threedimensional (3D) and is described mathematically by theNavierStokes equations. However, engineering community needs rather a simple estimationof the mean velocity distribution dependent on easymeasurable river characteristics instead of the 3D solution to these equations. A simple formulation of the 2D mean velocity profile isthus essential. Therefore, theoretical bases for building 2D equivalent velocity profile forturbulent flows over large relative roughness is presented. In order to define the equivalent velocity distribution and to smooth out the 3D flow irregularities, a special, spatial averaging operation is defined. The Reynolds equations are spatially averaged and the doubleaveraged momentum equation for primary component velocity is derived. The new hypotheses isproposed and some assumptions are introduced to solve this momentum equation. It results in a new version of logarithmic velocity distribution. To define this distribution, full reconstruction of the Nikuradse’s graph for flows over irregular gravel river bed is considered. It is based on very precise measurements of velocity as well as other hydraulic parameters for flows over large, artificial roughness elements as well as for more natural roughness surfaces. The artificial roughness elements used in the experimental work were cubes and spherical elements glued across of the bed of the channel at the required spacing. Also, three cases of beds comprising natural, river gravels with averaged sizes 20mm, 25mm and 35mm were examined. Results of these measurements (MansourTehrani 1992, Koll 2002) are reanalyzed and the Nikuradse’s graph for flows over large roughness elements in an open channel is reconstructed.

File Size : 
461,661 bytes 
File Type : 
Adobe Acrobat Document 
Chapter : 
IAHR World Congress Proceedings

Category : 
32nd Congress  Venice (2007)

Article : 
THEME A: Engineering and Management of Freshwater Systems

Date Published : 
01/07/2007 







