IAHR, founded in 1935, is a worldwide independent member-based organisation of engineers and water specialists working in fields related to the hydro-environmental sciences and their practical application. Activities range from river and maritime hydraulics to water resources development and eco-hydraulics, through to ice engineering, hydroinformatics, and hydraulic machinery.
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You are here : eLibrary : IAHR World Congress Proceedings : 33rd Congress - Vancouver (2009) : Topic A: Advances in the Fundamentals of Water Science and Engineering : Observations of anchor ice formation and bed sediment transport
Observations of anchor ice formation and bed sediment transport
Author : R. Ettema and E.W. Kempema
Many alluvial rivers are characterized by low discharges of water and bed sediment during late fall and early winter when initial ice covers form. Yet, the initial stages of ice formation may be periods of enhanced coarse sediment transport if anchor ice forms. This paper presents observations of anchor ice formation on river beds, discusses how and where anchor ice forms, and describes sediment transport (ice rafting) by anchor ice. Anchor ice commonly forms and releases via an evening and early morning diurnal cycle of water cooling and warming. When released, anchor ice is capable of ice rafting silt through to boulder-size bed sediment downstream through low-velocity stream sub-reaches.
File Size : 281,254 bytes
File Type : Adobe Acrobat Document
Chapter : IAHR World Congress Proceedings
Category : 33rd Congress - Vancouver (2009)
Article : Topic A: Advances in the Fundamentals of Water Science and Engineering
Date Published : 09/08/2009
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