IAHR, founded in 1935, is a worldwide independent member-based organisation of engineers and water specialists working in fields related to the hydro-environmental sciences and their practical application. Activities range from river and maritime hydraulics to water resources development and eco-hydraulics, through to ice engineering, hydroinformatics, and hydraulic machinery.
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You are here : eLibrary : IAHR World Congress Proceedings : 34th Congress - Brisbane (2011) : THEME 1: Extremes and Variability : Vulnerability of groundwater resources in tongatapu
Vulnerability of groundwater resources in tongatapu
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Two thirds of the population of the Kingdom of Tonga, live on the small, South Pacific raised limestone island of Tongatapu. Groundwater is the principle source of reticulated fresh water both in the capital Nuku’alofa and in rural villages and is sourced from a relatively thin, fresh groundwater lens overlying seawater. This paper describes a comprehensive, integrated assessment of the vulnerability of fresh groundwater in Tongatapu. Water resources policy and legislation, and the organisation structures for regulating and managing of water were examined. Threats to groundwater from seawater intrusion, overpumping, agriculture, waste disposal, industry, quarrying, urban settlements, population growth, droughts and climate change were analysed using existing data and field measurements. The impact of pumping on freshwater salinity is clearly discernible within ENSO signatures. Suggestions are made for improving the protection of water resources, mitigating saline water impacts, enhancing freshwater supplies and for reforming regulation and management.
File Size : 1,070,905 bytes
File Type : Adobe Acrobat Document
Chapter : IAHR World Congress Proceedings
Category : 34th Congress - Brisbane (2011)
Article : THEME 1: Extremes and Variability
Date Published : 01/07/2011
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