IAHR, founded in 1935, is a worldwide independent member-based organisation of engineers and water specialists working in fields related to the hydro-environmental sciences and their practical application. Activities range from river and maritime hydraulics to water resources development and eco-hydraulics, through to ice engineering, hydroinformatics, and hydraulic machinery.
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You are here : eLibrary : IAHR World Congress Proceedings : 36th Congress - The Hague (2015) ALL CONTENT : Water engineering : Design and construction of a hydraulic structure for rainwater harvesting in arid environment
Design and construction of a hydraulic structure for rainwater harvesting in arid environment
Author : ERFANEH SHARIFI(1), KOICHI UNAMI(2), OSAMA MOHAWESH(3), TADASUKE NAKAMICHI(4), NOBUHIKO KINJO(5) & MASAYUKI
ABSTRACT
A novel type of hydraulic structure is proposed for rainwater harvesting in an arid area of Jordan. The project is to
develop an irrigation scheme near the Dead Sea, where low annual precipitation and high salinity are the major
concerns. The scheme consists of an irrigated farm, a reservoir, and an intake structure to divert ephemeral flood flows
into the reservoir. The harvested water is expected to be fresh in comparison with the groundwater in the vulnerable
freshwater lens. This research focusses on hydraulic design and actual construction processes of the structure. The
structure consists of a gutter cutting across a 16 m wide valley bottom and a conveyance channel of 60 m long to guide
the water into the reservoir. The conveyance channel is equipped with a spillway part. As a result of level surveys and
hydrological considerations, it was revealed that the structure should have a width of 1.6 m and supercritical flows
should be dominant. Details of structure dimensions were designed with numerical and model experiments. A finite
volume scheme for the two-dimensional shallow water equations was used to numerically reproduce the whole flow field
during a rainwater harvesting event with the maximum design discharge. The numerical scheme employs special fluxsplitting
and data reconstruction techniques that realize stable computation of very shallow transcritical flows. A distorted
hydraulic model with 1/8 horizontal scale and 1/1 roughness scale was constructed in an experimental station in Japan,
in order to test hydraulic phenomena that the numerical method cannot represent. Then, the structure was actually
constructed at the site. The channel bottoms are made of reinforced concrete, while the side walls are of concrete blocks
whose sizes have been chosen according to the design. However, minor changes were made during the construction
processes due to workability constraints. The numerical experiments were conducted again to confirm the actual
structure showing desired performance.
File Size : 4,872,579 bytes
File Type : Adobe Acrobat Document
Chapter : IAHR World Congress Proceedings
Category : 36th Congress - The Hague (2015) ALL CONTENT
Article : Water engineering
Date Published : 18/08/2015
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