IAHR, founded in 1935, is a worldwide independent member-based organisation of engineers and water specialists working in fields related to the hydro-environmental sciences and their practical application. Activities range from river and maritime hydraulics to water resources development and eco-hydraulics, through to ice engineering, hydroinformatics, and hydraulic machinery.
Log On
About IAHRDirectoryCommitteesMy IAHRNews & JournalseLibraryeShopEventsJoin IAHRWorld CongressDonate
spacer.gif eLibrary
spacer.gif eLibrary
You are here : eLibrary : IAHR World Congress Proceedings : 36th Congress - The Hague (2015) ALL CONTENT : Sediment management and morphodynamics : Combined effect of anthropogenic and natural sources on nile delta coast erosion
Combined effect of anthropogenic and natural sources on nile delta coast erosion
The Nile Delta is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast and extends for about 240 km from Abu Qir headland at
Alexandria on the west to Port Said at the east. Along the Nile delta of Egypt for thousands of years, the Nile River has
carried vast quantities of sand derived from equatorial east Africa, displacing the delta coast seaward into the
Mediterranean Sea. However, since the late nineteenth century there has been a prolonged period of decrease in
discharge on the Nile, essentially caused by a dramatic decrease after the construction of the Aswan High Dam in the
1960s. Shoreline erosion has destroyed coastal roads, recreational facilities and beach resorts at Alexandria, Rashid
and Baltim cities, Egypt.
Kitchinar drain, which is located 5 km east of Baltim city, delivers about 18 m3/sec of water flow to Mediterranean sea.
The west coast of Kitchener drain is protected by fourteen emerged detached breakwaters and nine emerged
perpendicular groin which prevent the transported sediments. The shortage of sediment source for the east coastal side
of the drain allow shoreline to be eroded under dynamic wave impact for five kilometer east of the drain.
More than 103 beach profiles have been surveyed by Costal Research Institute (CoRI) since 2003 to 2013 to monitor
coastal surf zone changes. From these extensive surveys, 76 profiles 100 meters spacing have been selected to cover
the coast of the Kitchener drain.
Three scenarios have been numerically modeled for different human artificial interaction structures to protect this zone
from erosion. These three scenarios are protecting the outfall using two main emerged Jetties. Scenario 1 includes 8
detached emerged breakwaters combined with 6 groins while scenario 2 includes submerged breakwater and 7 groins.
Scenario 3 includes 15 eastern emerged groins perpendicular to the shoreline and 4 intermediate groins.
The three scenarios have been modeled numerically using finite element model (Mike 21 Coupled Model FM), which is
based on two dimensional shallow water equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical models have been
calibrated and validated by adjusting bed level changes at bed profiles and shorelines located in the eroded zone.
Studies showed that, scenario 2 is the preferred scenario to protect shoreline from erosion with low currents speed
(~.005 to .01 m/s), low wave heights(~0.1m) behind submerged breakwater, and allows water circulation or tidal currents
to pass over submerged breakwaters.
File Size : 4,870,928 bytes
File Type : Adobe Acrobat Document
Chapter : IAHR World Congress Proceedings
Category : 36th Congress - The Hague (2015) ALL CONTENT
Article : Sediment management and morphodynamics
Date Published : 19/08/2015
Download Now