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You are here : eLibrary : IAHR World Congress Proceedings : 36th Congress - The Hague (2015) ALL CONTENT : Extreme events, natural variability and climate change : Mechanisms of damage during typhoon haiyan: storm surge, waves, and ˇ°tsunamilikeˇ± surf beat
Mechanisms of damage during typhoon haiyan: storm surge, waves, and ˇ°tsunamilikeˇ± surf beat
Author : JEREMY D. BRICKER(1) & VOLKER ROEBER(2)
ABSTRACT
Typhoons cause damage by a variety of mechanisms: wind, large waves, and storm surge. Storm surge itself has three
components: pressure-driven setup (the inverse barometer effect), wind-driven setup (wind pushing water onshore), and
breaking-wave-induced setup (breaking waves pushing water onshore). Numerical modeling shows that in the fringingreef-
protected town of Hernani during Typhoon Haiyan, pressure- and wind-driven setup were small, while breaking-waveinduced
setup varied in time as the envelope of large and small incident wave groups (sets), resulting in an infragravity
oscillation. The surf beat contained energy in a frequency range close to the natural resonant mode of the reef, which
amplified the energy of the surf beat (Nakaza and Hino, 1991; Nwogu and Demirbilek, 2010). During propagation over the
reef, the amplified surf beat steepened nonlinearly, and impacted the town as a tsunami-like bore, resulting in extensive
damage and casualties. Since coastal hazard planning presently relies on phase-averaged wave modeling, infragravity
surges such as the one that struck Hernani are not currently being accounted for, highlighting the necessity for a change
of policy and the adoption of phase-resolving wave models in regions protected by fringing coral reefs.
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Chapter : IAHR World Congress Proceedings
Category : 36th Congress - The Hague (2015) ALL CONTENT
Article : Extreme events, natural variability and climate change
Date Published : 19/08/2015
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