IAHR, founded in 1935, is a worldwide independent member-based organisation of engineers and water specialists working in fields related to the hydro-environmental sciences and their practical application. Activities range from river and maritime hydraulics to water resources development and eco-hydraulics, through to ice engineering, hydroinformatics, and hydraulic machinery.
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You are here : eLibrary : IAHR World Congress Proceedings : 32nd Congress - Venice (2007) : THEME A: Engineering and Management of Fresh-water Systems : Desalination: a solution to water shortage or not
Desalination: a solution to water shortage or not
Author : Birol Çınar , Ş. Yurdagül Kumcu
The salt purification technology, which is used in seawater and deep underground fossil water, is widely used in oil-wealthy Middle East countries. Although fossil water has less salinity problem than seawater it can not be used drinking and domestic water without purification. Total capacity of the salt purification establishment in the world is about 20 million m3. 24.4%, 10.6%, 9.1%, 15.2% and 4.1 of this capacity are belonging to the countries of Saudi Arabia, United Arabic Emirates, Kuwait, USA and Japan, respectively. The rest of the 36.6% is distributed to the other countries. Since the cost of the desalination of seawater is high, the usage of it limited to the drinking and domestic purposes. However, in order to secure enough food for the population irrigated agriculture is also necessary. Today technologies can not produce agricultural water through desalinization with a feasible price. Intuitions related with the water in countries suffering water-shortage are working on to develop cheaper solutions. However, any kind of solutions will need energy supply. Since they do not have hydropower capacities, they have to seek some other energy alternatives. Middle East countries that do not have oil are looking for some other alternatives such as nuclear energies. In this study, the technologies used in desalination systems in seawater, variation and comparisons of the cost of the systems according to the counties, the scatter of the producingcosts according to the years will be presented. The main parameters as capital investment in installing the systems, productivity cost, source and cost of the energy-power, operating and maintenance costs according to the years and countries used these technologies will bepresented. The point where we are and what kind of developments expected in the future in these technologies will be explained. Farther, environmental effect of the desalination processes will be discussed. At present discharge of highly contaminated water by salt to the natural environment is a problem needs further research activities.
File Size : 236,048 bytes
File Type : Adobe Acrobat Document
Chapter : IAHR World Congress Proceedings
Category : 32nd Congress - Venice (2007)
Article : THEME A: Engineering and Management of Fresh-water Systems
Date Published : 01/07/2007
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