Author(s): Hossein Bonakdari
Keywords: Dip Phenomenon; Velocity Profile; Narrow Channel; Secondary Current
Abstract: The determination of velocity profile in turbulent narrow open channels is a difficult task due to the significant effects of the anisotropic turbulence that involve the Prandtl’s second type of secondary flow occurring in the cross section. With these currents the maximum velocity appears below the free surface that is called dip phenomenon. The well-known logarithmic law describes the velocity distribution in the inner region of the turbulent boundary layer but it is not adapted to define the velocity profile in the outer region of narrow channels. This paper relies on an analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations and yields a new formulation of the vertical velocity profile in the center region of steady, fully developed turbulent flows in open channels. This formulation is able to predict time averaged primary velocity in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer for both narrow and wide open channels. The proposed law is a modification of the well-known logarithmic law, which involves an additional parameter C (A) depending on the position of the maximum velocity (ξdip) and roughness height (ks). ξdip may be derived, either from measurements or from an empirical equation given in this paper. A wide range of longitudinal velocity profile data for narrow open channels has been used for validating the model. The agreement between the measured and the computed velocities is rather good, despite the simplification used.