Author(s): Oscar Castro-Orgaz PhD; Willi H. Hager
Keywords: Critical flow; Hydraulic jump; Hydraulics; Open channel flow; Roller; Transitional flow
Abstract: The dynamics of free surface flow is characterised by the so-called Froude number F, whose value F = 1 separates subcritical (F < 1) and supercritical (F > 1) flows. The transition from F < 1 to F > 1 is smooth and continuous, as observed in weir flow. However, the reverse transition from F > 1 to F < 1 is abrupt and discontinuous. In the present research the simplest approximation is proposed to describe hydraulic jump flow. The 2D flow features of the classical hydraulic jump are properly described and favorably compared with experimental data. Based on one-dimensional results, the hydraulic jump flow is rationally related to the critical flow condition and it is proved that the specific energy of the main flow reaches a minimum value at F = 1, whereas the total energy head decreases due to energy dissipation. Further results relate to the effects of air, and the non-uniform pressure and velocity distributions.