Author(s): Robert Frederking
Abstract: Indentation testing at medium scale has been carried out on four occasions, between 1984 and 1990, in the Canadian Arctic. Iceberg ice and multi-year ice were tested. Forces up to 16 MN were exerted on contact areas up to 3 m2 at rates up to 0.4 m/s. All testing was done with the same servo-hydraulic controlled system. Results of the test programs have been previously reported individually. Here the results have been compared in terms of force versus penetration, global pressure versus nominal contact area and volumetric specific crushing energy versus crushed volume of ice. Various geometries of indenter and ice face were used but the volumetric specific crushing energy was relatively independent of geometry of ice or the indenter for the cases examined. Specific energy is lower for lower penetration rates. There was a strong numerical similarity between volumetric specific energy (MJ/m3) and pressure (MPa) for the same test, whether plotted against crushed ice volume or nominal contact area. This paper explores whether volumetric specific crushing energy can provide helpful insights to defining global ice pressures on relatively small global areas, those less than 3 m2. While this linkage may provide an additional data source for global pressure-area relations needed for structural design, further understandings are needed before their application.