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Water Intakes – Siting and Design Approaches

Author(s): Adnan M. Alsaffar; Yifan Zheng

Linked Author(s): Yifan Zheng

Keywords: Water Intake; Site Hydrologic Conditions; Hydraulic Analysis; Bathymetry; Sediment; Constructability; Environmental Regulation; Tide; River; Offshore

Abstract: The function of a water supply intake is to extract and deliver water to the users. Therefore the design of water intakes require a series of hydraulic design consideration in order to arrive at a desirable concept that can obtain and deliver the water economically with an acceptably low impact on the environment. Due to variability of site conditions, the environmental hydraulic engineer is faced with several challenges when assessing water supply availability. The major factors that can affect the selection of a concept and design development for a water intake are: water availability, bathymetry, sediment transport, environmental regulations, climatic conditions, constructability, initial and maintenance dredging requirements, and operation and maintenance. The paper examines these factors and discusses their importance in selecting a suitable concept. To demonstrate the approach in evaluating the various variables, case studies at four sites with differing conditions are presented. The rationale for selecting each concept is presented along with illustrations. Site conditions considered in the cases are; Intake on rivers with high water level fluctuation, intakes on tidal rivers, intakes in mountainous streams and offshore velocity cap intakes. The paper stresses the importance of appropriate hydraulic design to provide acceptable flow conditions at the pumps.


Year: 1999

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