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Specifics of Chemical Composition of Amur and Songhua River Ice

Author(s): V. P. Shesterkin

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Abstract: The ice cover in the Amur Basin has a complex structure composed of various types of ice such as crystal ice, frozen frazil slush, overflow ice and snow ice. Diverse conditions of ice formation cause significant differences of chemical composition of various types of ice. From the ecological point of view overflow ice is of most scientific interest as it is formed on the ice surface after particular accidents at industrial facilities and the release of reservoir water. Due to the disastrous accident at the chemical plant in Jilin in November 2005, for example, lots of different toxicants polluted the Songhua River. Therefore, it was vitally important to study chemical composition of Songhua ice at Harbin, Jiamusi and Tangyuan and Amur ice at Khabarovsk, Amurzet and Leninskoe. Crystal ice of the Songhua and Amur rivers is characterized with low concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (10 mkgN/dm3) and phosphorus (5 mkgР/dm3) and the absence of nitrite nitrogen. Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in Songhua ice is a sequence higher (up to 390 mkgN/dm3) than in Amur ice. Dissolved substances are relatively even distributed along the vertical profile. Much higher concentrations of dissolved substances are registered in overflow ice. In Songhua overflow ice 0.46 m thick concentrations of suspended substances, phosphorus (141 mkgР/dm3), nitrate (273 mkgN/dm3) and ammonia nitrogen (930 mkgN/dm3) were found rather increased. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations increased to twice that of the Russian ecological permissible norms. Maximal concentrations of phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen were registered at the left bank of the Songhua upstream of the city of Harbin and ammonia nitrogen concentrations were the highest at the right bank upstream of the city of Jiamusi. Concentrations of these elements in Songhua overflow ice near Tangyuan and Amur ice were a sequence lower. Uneven distribution of pollutants in overflow ice serves as an indicator of river water pollution that took place during the ice formation period.


Year: 2012

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