Author(s): Baafour Nyantekyi-Kwakye; Shawn P. Clark; Mark F. Tachie; Jarrod Malenchak; Getnet Muluye
Keywords: Offset jet; particle image velocimetry; recirculation region; Reynolds stress; three-dimensional; two-point velocity correlation
Abstract: The present study investigates the flow characteristics within the recirculation region of three-dimensional offset jets using a particle image velocimetry technique. Measurements were performed for four nozzle offset height ratios of 0, 2, 4 and 8. The discharged jet entrained the ambient fluid as depicted by streamlines superimposed on the mean velocity contours. Analysis of the flow field showed that the maximum streamwise mean velocity decay rate increased with increasing offset height ratio. Wall-normal spread rates of 0.066 and 0.016 were obtained for jets with offset height ratios of 0 and 2, respectively, and lateral spread rates of 0.116, 0.114 and 0.096 for jets with offset height ratios of 0, 2 and 4, respectively. The reattachment lengths of the jets increased with increasing offset height ratio. Profiles of the mean velocities, Reynolds stresses and some of the budget terms (specifically, production, diffusion and convective terms) of the turbulent kinetic energy have been investigated. It was observed that increasing the offset height ratio influenced the distribution of these quantities within the recirculation region. A two-point velocity correlation analysis was performed to analyse the flow structures within the recirculation region. The two-point correlation revealed some large-scale structures which were observed to increase in size as the offset height ratio increased. The two-point correlation analysis also revealed that the estimated integral length scales within the recirculation region of the flow increased with increasing offset height ratio.