Author(s): Hubert Chanson
Keywords: Air–water flows; air entrainment; dynamic similarity; hydraulic modelling; metrology; multiphase flows
Abstract: In turbulent free-surface flows, the deformation of the surface leads to air bubble entrainment and droplet projections when the turbulent shear stress is greater than the surface tension stress that resists to the interfacial breakup. These complex processes at the water–air interface have been the focus of extensive experimental, numerical and theoretical studies over last two decades and this paper reviews the key advancements. It is highlighted that the recent progress in metrology enables the detailed measurements of a range of air–water flow properties under controlled flow conditions, representing the sine qua non requirement for the development of improved physical understanding and for validating phenomenological and numerical models. The author believes that the future research into aerated flow hydraulics should focus on field measurements of high quality, development of new measurement approaches and data analyses tools, computational fluid dynamics modelling of aerated flows, and the mechanics of aerated flows in conduits.