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Mechanisms of Damage During Typhoon Haiyan: Storm Surge, Wave S, and “Tsunami-Like” Surf Beat

Author(s): Jeremy D. Bricker; Volker Roeber

Linked Author(s): Jeremy Bricker

Keywords: Storm surge; Surf beat; Typhoon Haiyan; OpenFOAM; Delft-3D/SWAN

Abstract: Typhoons cause damage by a variety of mechanisms: wind, large waves, and storm surge. Storm surge itself has three components: pressure-driven setup (the inverse barometer effect) ,wind-driven setup (wind pushing water onshore) ,and breaking-wave-induced setup (breaking waves pushing water onshore) .Numerical modeling shows that in the fringingreef-protected town of Hernani during Typhoon Haiyan, pressure-and wind-driven setup were small, while breaking-waveinduced setup varied in time as the envelope of large and small incident wave groups (sets) ,resulting in an infragravity oscillation. The surf beat contained energy in a frequency range close to the natural resonant mode of the reef, which amplified the energy of the surf beat (Nakaza and Hino, 1991; Nwogu and Demirbilek, 2010) .During propagation over the reef, the amplified surf beat steepened nonlinearly, and impacted the town as a tsunami-like bore, resulting in extensive damage and casualties. Since coastal hazard planning presently relies on phase-averaged wave modeling, infragravity surges such as the one that struck Hernani are not currently being accounted for, highlighting the necessity for a change of policy and the adoption of phase-resolving wave models in regions protected by fringing coral reefs.


Year: 2015

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