Author(s): A. Marchenko; J. Grue; E. Karulin; R. Frederking; B. Lishman; P. Chistyakov; M. Karulina; D. Sodhi; C. Renshaw; A. Sakharov; V. Markov; E. Morozov; M. Shortt; J. Brown; A. Sliusarenko; D. Frey
Abstract: The effective elastic modulus of ice is an important physical parameter for the calculation of ice stresses in different situations when ice deformations are small. In the present paper the review of methods used for the calculation of the elastic modulus of ice is performed, new tests for the calculation of the elastic modulus are described, and their results are discussed. Field experiments with floating vibrating ice beams with fixed ends were performed in March and November 2019 on sea ice of the Van Mijen Fjord and fresh-water ice of a lake near Longyearbyen. Laboratory experiments with vibrating cantilever beams were performed in the cold laboratory of UNIS in November 2019. The results are compared with the values of the effective elastic modulus obtained in quasi-static tests with floating cantilever beams, and with in-situ dynamic tests where the effective elastic modulus was measured by the speed of sound waves.