Author(s): Richard McSherry; Ken Chua; Thorsten Stoesser; Saad Mulahasan
Keywords: Hydraulic jump; hydraulic resistance; large-eddy simulation; relative submergence
Abstract: ABSTRACTResults from large-eddy simulations and complementary flume experiments of turbulent open channel flows over bed-mounted square bars at intermediate submergence are presented. Scenarios with two bar spacings, corresponding to transitional and k-type roughness, and three flow rates, are investigated. Good agreement is observed between the simulations and the experiments in terms of mean free surface elevations and mean streamwise velocities. Contours of simulated time-averaged streamwise, streamfunction and turbulent kinetic energy are presented and these reveal the effect of the roughness geometry on the water surface response. The analysis of the vertical distribution of the streamwise velocity shows that in the lowest submergence cases no logarithmic layer is present, whereas in the higher submergence cases some evidence of such a layer is observed. For several of the flows moderate to significant water surface deformations are observed, including weak and/or undular hydraulic jumps which affect significantly to the overall streamwise momentum balance. Reynolds shear stress, form-induced stress and form drag are analysed with reference to the momentum balance to assess their contributions to the total hydraulic resistance of these flows. The results show that form-induced stresses are dominant at the water surface and can contribute significantly to the overall drag, but the total resistance in all cases is dominated by form drag due to the presence of the bars.