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Bend Flow in Bottom Outlets

Author(s): Corrado Gisonni; Willi H. Hager

Linked Author(s): Corrado Gisonni, Willi H. Hager

Keywords: Ir-water flow; Bend; Bottom outlet; Highspeed flow; Hydraulics

Abstract: Free surface tunnel flow across a 45 deg. bend is considered, as is typical for bottom outlets across embankment dams. A novel dimensionless number is introduced to distinguish between stratified and annular tunnel flow. Important design relations relating to maximum flow depth and air supply discharge are also presented.


Year: 1999

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