Author(s): Michael Pfister; Willi H. Hager
Keywords: Air concentration; chute; deflector; jet; pre-aeration; trajectory
Abstract: Jets generated at chute ends move a potential scour zone away from the dam, and dissipate flow energy to reduce the scour. Usually, so-called flip buckets or ski jumps are provided to generate jets, yet they are rarely issued by deflectors. The application of a theoretical mass point parabola is limited to predict the jet features, because effects related to the take-off angle and the disintegration process affect the jet air transport and trajectories. This research discusses the effect of pre-aeration of the approach chute flow on the jet features. A comparison with a former study indicates that mainly the upper jet portion is affected, that the black water jet core becomes shorter, and that the air transport increases. Although the lower trajectory is less affected and thus remains more coherent, the small effect of pre-aeration is sufficient to reduce the total jet throw length, so that pre-aerated jets tend to be shorter as compared with black-water approach flow jets, in agreement with prototype observations.