Author(s): Renske C. Terwisscha Van Scheltinga; Heide Friedrich; Giovanni Coco
Linked Author(s): Heide Friedrich
Keywords: No Keywords
Abstract: Traditional sediment transport equations calculate sediment flux from bed shear stress and the equations predict that transport increases nonlinearly with an increase in flow velocity. In a dune field, the dune geometry affects the flow velocity causing accelerating flow over the dune crest and de-and reattachment of the flow downstream of the dune crest. Sediment flux predicted from the reach-averaged bed shear stress gives fairly good results for dune fields, though their simplification is discordant for the complexity of the processes involved. Measurements of the displacement of sand particles over the dune bed were derived from highfrequency image capturing. The two main methods to measure particle velocities from images are particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). We compare individual particle tracking with a PIV-based correlation method. The PIV-based method promises to be a more efficient and effective approach to track particle motion. It is more suitable for the conditions of high bedload transport, as present in our experiments. The PIV-based method is based on using images of difference (IoD) and is fully automated and identifies spatial gradients at a support scale in the order of centimetres. Findings align with our general knowledge of accelerating flow over the dune crest. The mean streamwise particle velocity and activity over a dune stoss slope increase. At the scale of 0.026 m the observed particle velocity variability can be explained in the context of general onset and cessation of sediment transport, the effect of the reattachment zone and observed sweep/burst events. By decreasing the streamwise distance between cross-sections, the variations in mean particle velocity induced by superimposed bed defects are distinguished as well. The maximum particle velocity and activity occurred at the same location and consequently the location of the maximum transport over the dune crest was identified. The measurements bridge the gap between individual particle motion studies and (non-local) sediment transport flux measurements.