Author(s): Gaetano Crispino; Michael Pfister; Corrado Gisonni
Keywords: Experimental facility; hydraulic model; laboratory study; shock wave; sewer hydraulics; sewer manhole; supercritical flow
Abstract: Junction manholes are a part of urban drainage infrastructures. They merge inlet branches into an outlet branch. Former studies focused on junction flow by considering a specific manhole layout: identical diameters were assigned to the branches and the invert was flush. Nevertheless, engineers are often involved in designing junctions under generalized geometries, with different branch diameters and, sometimes, bottom offsets at manhole inlets. For these junction arrangements, the empirical relations documented in literature are not applicable. An experimental campaign was thus conducted to determine the main flow features of junction manholes under generalized set-ups. The results include a diagram of state to be used if junctions operate under mixed flow conditions. Information regarding the main wave patterns, with detailed discussion of wave features and heights, is provided to support the hydraulic design of junction manholes under the supercritical flow regime.